Titelblatt von: "A Problem in Greek Ethics being a Inquiry into the Phenomenon of sexual Inversion. Adressed especially to Medical Psychologists and Jurists." by John Addington Symonds, London 1896

Titelblatt der 1. öffentlichen Seperatausgabe 1901 (Text von 1873).
Text bei Rictor Norton.

A

PROBLEM


IN

GREEK ETHICS


BEING
AN INQUIRY INTO THE PHENOMENON OF

SEXUAL INVERSION


ADRESSED ESPECIALLY TO MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS AND JURISTS
BY
JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS
LONDON
1901

PREFACE.

THE following treatise on Greek Love was written in the year 1873, when my mind was occupied with my Studies of Greek Poets. I printed ten copies of it privately in 1883. It was only when I read the Terminal Essay appended by Sir Richard Burton to his translation of the Arabian Nights in 1886, that I became aware of M. H. E. Meier's article on Paederastie (Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopedie, Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1837). My treatise, therefore, is a wholly independent production. This makes Meier's agreement (in Section 7 of his article) with the theory I have set forth in Section X, regarding the North Hellenic origin of Greek Love, and its Dorian character, the more remarkable. That two students, working separately upon the same mass of material, should have arrived at similar conclusions upon this point strongly confirms the probability of the hypothesis.

J. A. SYMONDS.


CONTENTS.

I. INTRODUCTION : Method of treating the subject

II. Homer had no knowledge of paiderastia — Achilles — Treatment of Homer by the later Greeks.

III. The Romance of Achilles and Patroclus.

IV. The heroic ideal of masculine love.

V. Vulgar paiderastia — How introduced into Hellas — Crete — Laius — The myth of Ganymede.

VI. Discrimination of two loves, heroic and vulgar. The mixed sort is the paiderastia defined as Greek love in this essay.

VII. The intensity of paiderastia as an emotion, and its quality.

VIII. Myths of paiderastia.

IX. Semi-legendary tales of love — Harmodius and Aristogeiton.

X. Dorian Customs — Sparta and Crete — Conditions of Dorian life — Moral quality of Dorian love — Its final degeneracy — Speculations on the early Dorian Ethos — Boeotians' customs — The sacred band — Alexander the Great — Customs of Elis and Megara — Hybris — Ionia.

XI. Paiderastia in poetry of the lyric age. Theognis and Kurnus — Solon — Ibycus, the male Sappho — Anacreon and Smerdies — Drinking songs — Pindar and Theoxenos — Pindar's lofty conception of adolescent beauty.

XII. Paiderastia upon the Attic stage — Myrmidones of Aeschylus — Achilles' lovers, and Niobe of Sophocles — The Chrysippus of Euripides — Stories about Sophocles — Illustrious Greek paiderasts.

XIII. Recapitulation of points — Quotation from the speech of Pausanias on love in Plato's Symposium — Observations on this speech. Position of women at Athens — Attic notion of marriage as a duty — The institution of Paidagogoi — Life of a Greek bov — Aristophanes' Clouds—Lucian's Amores — The Palaestra — The Lysis — The Charmides — Autolycus in Xenophon's Symposium — Speech of Critobulus on beauty and love — Importance of gymnasia in relation to paiderastia — Statues of Eros — Cicero's opinions — Laws concerning the gymnasia — Graffiti on walls — Love-poems and panegyrics — Presents to boys — Shops and mauvais lieux — Paiderastic Hetaireia — Brothels — Phaedon and Agathocles. Street brawls about boys — Lysias in Simonem.


viii Contents.

XIV. Distinctions drawn by Attic law and custom — Chrestoi Pornoi — Presents and money — Atimia of freemen who had sold their bodies — The definition of Misthosis — Eromenos, Hetairekos, Peporneumenos, distinguished — Mschines against Timarchus — General conclusion as to Attic feeling about honourable paiderastia.

XV. Platonic doctrine on Greek love — The asceticism of the Laws — Socrates — His position defined by Maximus Tyrius — His science of erotics — The theory of the Phaedrus: erotic Mania — The mysticism of the Symposium: love of beauty — Points of contact between Platonic paiderastia and chivalrous love: Mania and Joie : Dante's Vita Nuova — Platonist and Petrarchist — Gibbon on the "thin device" of the Athenian philosophers — Testimony of Lucian, Plutarch, Cicero.

XVI. Greek liberty and Greek love extinguished at Chaeronea — The Idyllists — Lucian's Amores — Greek poets never really gross — Mousa Paidiké — Philostratus' Epistolai Erotikai — Greek Fathers on paiderastia.

XVII. The deep root struck by paiderastia in Greece — Climate — Gymnastics — Syssitia — Military life — Position of Women: inferior culture; absence from places of resort — Greek leisure.

XVIII. Relation of paiderastia to the fine arts — Greek sculpture wholly and healthily human — Ideals of female deities — Paiderastia did not degrade the imagination of the race — Psychological analysis underlying Greek mythology — The psychology of love — Greek mythology fixed before Homer — Opportunities enjoyed by artists for studying women — Anecdotes about artists — The aesthetic temperament of the Greeks, unbiassed by morality and religion, encouraged paiderastia — Hora — Physical and moral qualities admired by a Greek — Greek ethics were aesthetic — Sophrosyne — Greek religion was aesthetic — No notion of Jehovah — Zeus and Ganymede.

XIX. Homosexuality among Greek women — Never attained to the same dignity as paiderastia.

XX. Greek love did not exist at Rome — Christianity — Chivalry — The modus -vivendi of the modern world.


Titelblatt von: "A Problem in modern Ethics being a Inquiry into the Phenomenon of sexual Inversion. Adressed especially to Medical Psychologists and Jurists." by John Addington Symonds, London 1896

Titelblatt der 1. öffentlichen Ausgabe 1896 (Text von 1891).

Text bei Rictor Norton.

 
 

A
PROBLEM IN MODERN ETHICS



BEING

AN INQUIRY INTO THE PHENOMENON
OF SEXUAL INVERSION


ADRESSED ESPECIALLY TO MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS
AND JURISTS


BY

JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS

LONDON
1896



TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER                 PAGE

LIST OF BOOKS CONSULTED......... vii.

INTRODUCTION............. 1

I. CHRISTIAN OPINION FROM THE AGE OF JUSTINIAN . 5

II. VULGAR ERRORS............. 9

III. LITERATURE : PORNOGRAPHIC AND DESCRIPTIVE :

Carlier, Les deux Prostitutions........ 16

IV. LITERATURE : MEDICO-FORENSIC : Tardieu .... 21

V. LITERATURE : MEDICO-PSYCHOLOGICAL : Moreau, Tarnowsky, Krafft-Ebing, Lombroso....... 29

VI. LITERATURE : HISTORICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL : Meier, "A Problem in Greek Ethics"; Rosenbaum, Bastian, Herbert Spencer, Sir Richard Burton, Mantegazza.............. 75

VII. LITERATURE : POLEMICAL : Karl Heinrich Ulrichs . . 84

VIII. LITERATURE : IDEALISTIC : Walt Whitman .... 115

IX. EPILOGUE............... 126

X. SUGGESTIONS UPON LEGISLATION....... 131


BOOKS CONSULTED.

GIBBON'S History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

Chapter XLIV. F. CARLIER. Les deux Prostitutions. Paris Dentu, 1889.

A. TARDIEU. Attentats aux Moeurs. Paris, Balliere, 1878.

J. L. CASPER and CARL LIMAN. Handbuch der Gerichtlichen Medicin. Berlin, Hirschwald, 1889.

J. L. CASPER. Klinische Novellen. Berlin, Hirschwald, 1863.

P. MOREAU. Des Aberrations du Sens Génétique. Paris, Asselin et Houzeau, 1887.

B. TARNOWSKY. Die krankhaften Erscheinungen des Geschlechtssinnes. Berlin, Hirschwald, 1886.

LEVY-MÜNCHEN. Die Männliche Sterilitat. Berlin, Henser,

1889. R. VON KRAFfT-EBING. Psychopathia Sexualis. Stuttgart, Enke,

1889. CESARR LOMBROSO. Der Verbrecher in Anthropologischer, Aerztlicher und Juristischer Beziehung. Hamburg, Richter, 1887.

M. H. F. MEIER. Paederastie. Ersch und Gruber's Allgemeine Encyclopädie. Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1837.

A Problem in Greek Ethics. No name or date. " Ten Copies printed for the Author's Use."

J. ROSENBAUM. Geschichte der Lustseuche im Alterthume. Halle a. S., H. W. Schmidt, 1882.

BASTIAN. Der Mensch in der Geschichte. Leipzig, Wigand, 1860.

HERBERT SPENCER. Sociological Tables.

P. DUFOUR. Histoire de la Prostitution. Eight vols. Bruxelles, Rozey, 1861.

Sir R. F. BURTON. Arabian Nights. Vol. 10. Benares, 1885.

P. MANTEGAZZA. Gli Amori degli Uomini. Milano, 1886.

NUMA NUMANTIUS (K. H. ULRICHS). Inclusa. Anthropologische Studien über mannmännliche Geschlechtsliebe. Leipzig, 1864.

NUMA NUMANTIUS. Formatrix. Anthrop. Studien über urnische Liebe. Leipzig, 1865.

NUMA NUMANTIUS. Vindex. Social-juristische Studien über mannmännliche Geschlechtsliebe. Liepzig, 1864.

NUMA NUMANTIUS. Vindicta. Kampf für Freiheit u. s. w. Leipzig, 1865.

NUMA NUMANTIUS. Ara Spei. Moralphil. und Socialphil. Studien über urnische Liebe. Leipzig, 1865.

K. H. ULRICHS. Gladius Furens. Das Naturräthsel der Urningsliebe. Kassel, Württenberger, 1868.

K. H. ULRICHS. Memnon. Die Geschlechtsnatur des mannliebenden Urnings. Schleiz, H. Heyn, 1868.

K. H. ULRICHS. Incubus. Urningsliebe und Blutgier. Leipzig, A. Serbe, 1869.

K. H. ULRICHS. Argonauticus. Zastrow und die Urninge. Leipzig, A. Serbe, 1869.

K. H. ULRICHS. Prometheus. Beitärge zur Erforschung des Naturräthsels des Uranismus. Leipzig, Serbe, 1870.

K. H. ULRICHS. Araxes. Ruf nach Befreiung der Urningsnatur vom Strafgesetz. Schleiz, Heyn, 1870.

WALT WHITMAN. Leaves of Grass, in "Complete Poems and Prose." 1889-1890.

WALT WHITMAN. Democratic Vistas. Nuova Codice Penale per il Regno d'ltalia.

A. COFFIGNON. La Corruption á Paris. Paris, La Librairie Illustrée. 7th edition. No date.




John Addington Symonds (05.10.1840 - 19.04.1893) las 1858 Platons Phaedrus, das Symposium und 1865 Walt Whitmans "Leaves of Grass". Gerüchte über sein Privatleben veranlassten ihn 1863 Oxford zu verlassen, die akademische Karriere war beendet. Auch infolge einer schweren Lungenerkrankung lebte er ab 1865 als Schriftsteller (z. B. "Die Renaissance in Italien") und "geborener Bohemian" vorwiegend in Italien und der Schweiz. Seine Heirat änderte sein Interesse für Männer nicht, hiervon profitierte insbesondere das aufkommende Davos.
In den letzten 12 Lebensjahren hatte er eine Beziehung zu dem venizianischen Gondoliere Angelo Fusato.
Symonds stand ab 1889 in Korrespondenz mit dem von ihm hoch geachteten Karl Heinrich Ulrichs und besuchte 1891 (von Fusato begleitet) den in ärmlichsten Verhältnissen in Aquila lebenden.

In einem Brief vom 7. Februar 1893 an Edward Carpenter berichtet Symonds über den Besuch bei Ulrichs:
"Hast du jemals etwas von Ulrichs' Schriften gelesen? Sie sind sehr merkwürdig. Man muß ihn als den wahren Begründer der wissenschaftlichen Behandlung des Phänomens ansehen. Ich besuchte ihn im November ((tatsächlich Oktober)) 1891. Er lebt im Exil und in großer Armut in Aquila in den Abruzzen, unterhalb des schneebedeckten Kamms des "ll gran passo d'ltalia". Dieser Mann besitzt einen einzigartigen Charme und große Anmut, Reste einer geläuterten Schönheit. Sein Schmutz war entsetzlich. Ich fuhr zu ihm in einer Kutsche und überredete ihn dann, mit mir eine Fahrt zu machen, was er auch tat. Er hatte kein Hemd und keine Strümpfe an. Mein prächtiger venezianischer Gondoliere und Diener war entsetzt, als er diesen armen Bettler sah, der direkt neben seinem Padrone saß. Ich sagte Angelo jedoch, dieser alte Mann sei einer von den Menschen in Europa, die ich am meisten schätzte und achtete. Und auch Angelo begann ihn zu mögen trotz seiner Lumpen."



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